Videos showing nonlinear atmospheric teleconnections
The nonlinear and linear projections of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation
(ENSO) index onto the winter N. Hemisphere climate anomalies [sea level
pressure (SLP), surface air temperature (SAT), 500 hPa geopotential
height (Z500), and standardized precipitation (PRCP)] are shown in
Video 1 in animated-GIF format. Similar projections of the Arctic
Oscillation (AO) index are shown in Video 2.
Linear projection (LP) and nonlinear projection (NLP) of the ENSO index
onto 4 different winter N. Hemisphere atmospheric anomaly fields, with
the LP displayed in panels (a) and (c), and NLP in (b) and (d). The SLP
(contoured) and SAT (colored) anomaly fields are shown in (a) and (b),
while the Z500 (contoured) and the standardized PRCP (colored) anomaly
fields are displayed in (c) and (d), all evolving as the ENSO index
(shown on the far right) swings from extreme negative values (cold ENSO
conditions) to extreme positive values (warm ENSO). Positive and
negative SLP and Z500 anomalies are indicated by solid and dashed
contours respectively, with the zero contour thickened. (Animated GIF
file, 3.7 MB).
LP and NLP of the AO index onto winter N. Hemisphere atmospheric anomaly
fields. The anomaly fields (SLP, SAT, Z500 and PRCP) evolve as the AO
index (shown on the far right) swings from extreme negative values to
extreme positive values. (Animated GIF file, 4.5 MB).